August 21, 2021

Parser generators vs. handwritten parsers: surveying major language implementations in 2021

Developers often think parser generators are the sole legit way to build programming language frontends, possibly because compiler courses in university teach lex/yacc variants. But do any modern programming languages actually use parser generators anymore?

To find out, this post presents a non-definitive survey of the parsing techniques used by various major programming language implementations.

CPython: PEG parser

Until CPython 3.10 (which hasn't been released yet) the default parser was built using pgen. The team thought the PEG parser was a better fit for expressing the language, and at the time took a reported 10% speed and memory usage hit switching off pgen.

The PEG grammar is defined here. (It is getting renamed in 3.10 though so check the directory for a file of a similar name if you browse 3.10+).

This section was corrected by MegaIng on Reddit. Originally I mistakenly claimed the previous parser was handwritten. It was not.

GCC: Handwritten

Source code for the C parser available here. It used to use Bison until GCC 4.1 in 2006. The C++ parser also switched from Bison to a handwritten parser 2 years earlier.

Clang: Handwritten

Not only handwritten but the same file handles parsing C, Objective-C and C++. Source code is available here.

Ruby: Yacc-like Parser Generator

Ruby uses Bison (thanks for the correction!). The grammar for the language can be found here.

V8 JavaScript: Handwritten

Source code available here.

Zend Engine PHP: Yacc-like Parser Generator

Source code available here.

TypeScript: Handwritten

Source code available here.

Bash: Yacc-like Parser Generator

Source code for the grammar is available here.

Chromium CSS Parser: Handwritten

Source code available here.

Java (OpenJDK): Handwritten

You can find the source code here.

Some older commentary calls this implementation fragile. But a Java contributor suggests the situation has improved since Java 8.

Golang: Handwritten

Until Go 1.6 the compiler used a yacc-based parser. The source code for that grammar is available here.

In Go 1.6 they switched to a handwritten parser. You can find that change here. There was a reported 18% speed increase when parsing files and a reported 3% speed increase in building the compiler itself when switching.

You can find the source code for the compiler's parser here.

Roslyn: Handwritten

The C# parser source code is available here. The Visual Basic parser source code is here.

A C# contributor mentioned a few key reasons for using a handwritten parser here.

Lua: Handwritten

Source code available here.

Swift: Handwritten

Source code available here.

R: Yacc-like Parser Generator

I couldn't find it at first but Liorithiel showed me the parser source code is here.

Julia: Handwritten ... in Scheme

Julia's parser is handwritten but not in Julia. It's in Scheme! Source code available here.

PostgreSQL: Yacc-like Parser Generator

PostgreSQL uses Bison for parsing queries. Source code for the grammar available here.

MySQL: Yacc Parser Generator

Source code for the grammar available here.

SQLite: Yacc-like Parser Generator

SQLite uses its own parser generator called Lemon. Source code for the grammary is available here.


Of the 2021 Redmonk top 10 languages, 8 of them have a handwritten parser. Ruby and Python use parser generators.

Although parser generators are still used in major language implementations, maybe it's time for universities to start teaching handwritten parsing?

This tweet was published before I was corrected about Python's parser. It should say 8/10 but I cannot edit the tweet.